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The only differences are that a struct defaults to public member access and public base class inheritance, and a class defaults to the private access specifier and private base class inheritance. Getting this question wrong does not necessarily disqualify you because you will be in plenty of good company. Getting it right is a definite plus. How many ways are there to initialize an int with a constant?
Example 1 a uses the traditional C notation, while Example 1 b uses constructor notation.
Many programmers do not know about the notation in Example 1 b , although they should certainly know about the first one. A reader wrote to tell me of two other ways, as shown in Examples 2 a and 2 b , which made me think that maybe the answer could be extended even further to include the initialization of an int function parameter with a constant argument from the caller.
How does throwing and catching exceptions differ from using setjmp and longjmp? The throw operation calls the destructors for automatic objects instantiated since entry to the try block. Both idioms return a program from the nested depths of multiple function calls to a defined position higher in the program.
Explain the syntax of try blocks, catch exception handlers, and throw expressions. Then specifically address what happens in a throw that does not happen in a longjmp. Your answer should reflect an understanding of the behavior described in the answer just given. I would prefer that you have at least heard of exception handling, though.
Those constructs are not particularly intuitive. What is your reaction to this line of code? A good programmer will insist that the statement is never to be used if the class is to be used by other programmers and instantiated as static, extern, or automatic objects.
That much should be obvious.
The code has two built-in pitfalls. First, if it executes in a member function for an extern, static, or automatic object, the program will probably crash as soon as the delete statement executes. There is no portable way for an object to tell that it was instantiated on the heap, so the class cannot assert that its object is properly instantiated. Second, when an object commits suicide this way, the using program might not know about its demise. As far as the instantiating program is concerned, the object remains in scope and continues to exist even though the object did itself in.
Subsequent dereferencing of the pointer can and usually does lead to disaster. A reader pointed out that a class can ensure that its objects are instantiated on the heap by making its destructor private. This idiom necessitates a kludgy DeleteMe kind of function because the instantiator cannot call the delete operator for objects of the class. Many programmers believe that delete this is a valid construct. In my experience, classes that use delete this when objects are instantiated by users usually spawn bugs related to the idiom, most often when a program dereferences a pointer to an object that has already deleted itself.
What is a default constructor? A constructor that has no arguments or one where all the arguments have default argument values. If you are going to instantiate an array of objects of the class, the class must have a default constructor.
What is a conversion constructor? A constructor that accepts one argument of a different type. The compiler uses this idiom as one way to infer conversion rules for a class. What is the difference between a copy constructor and an overloaded assignment operator? A copy constructor constructs a new object by using the content of the argument object.
An overloaded assignment operator assigns the contents of an existing object to another existing object of the same class.
First, you must know that a copy constructor is one that has only one argument, which is a reference to the same type as the constructor. The compiler invokes a copy constructor wherever it needs to make a copy of the object, for example to pass an argument by value.
If you do not provide a copy constructor, the compiler creates a member-by-member copy constructor for you. You can write overloaded assignment operators that take arguments of other classes, but that behavior is usually implemented with implicit conversion constructors. If you do not provide an overloaded assignment operator for the class, the compiler creates a default member-by-member assignment operator.
This discussion is a good place to get into why classes need copy constructors and overloaded assignment operators. By discussing the requirements with respect to data member pointers that point to dynamically allocated resources, you demonstrate a good grasp of the problem. When should you use multiple inheritance? Choose OK, and Windows will send the command to the modem every time it dials a connection. If this does not work, you'll need to check your modem manual to see if the modem has an oddball command for controlling the speaker.
Question What Happened? Answer : We probably pressed the "insert" key on our keyboard. The toggle to "insert" is "replace". The "replace" works in some programs but not all. For example: What is Byte?
A byte is eight binary digits. It is the smallest unit a computer works with at once.
The bits of a byte can be individually modified, but a computer still works with at least one byte at a time. See also: Binary and my article on Bits and Bytes.
What is Button? A button does some command in a program when it is clicked.
Buttons usually have a 3-dimensional look, although you may have to move the mouse over the button for it to look 3D. You should single-click on buttons do not double-click. What is CD-R? Compact Disc Recordable.